The production of the vaccine active ingredient, the mRNA molecule, can be completed in two to six hours. The entire production batch for mRNA vaccines, including the enzymatic synthesis of the mRNA, purification, and formulation, can be completed within days, excluding the time required for quality control testing. For example, BioNTech produces batches at three to seven day intervals, with four to five weeks spent for quality control. In contrast, completing batches for cell-based vaccines can take several months due to the time required to grow the cells to the specified volumes and quantities. The productivity of the mRNA vaccine production, expressed in doses per L of bioreactor working volumes per day, is two to four orders of magnitude higher compared to most cell-based vaccine production processes.